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中譯英連接詞語的聯用
作者:管理員    發布于:2012-07-01 20:58:12    文字:【】【】【

中譯英連接詞語的聯用

 

有時漢語復句前半部特別長,英譯時若僅用單個連接詞,其連接功能可伸展到何處不一定很清楚,如改用兩個前后關聯的詞語則可增加句子內部的銜接性與清晰度。

 

1.雖然船公司意欲上調運價,但是運價指數上周又呈急幅下跌。(《航運交易公報》)

Although shipping companies intend to raise the freight rates the freight index dropped sharply last week.

評析:但以上一句漢語可拉長如下: 屋盤為了穩定運價、改進收益,中外船公司最近在上海召開會議, 意欲上調上海至日本航線運價;同時,在大連/日本集裝箱班輪航線上派船的7家中國船公司810日起引入每20英尺標準集裝箱380美元的最低運價,但是日本航線運價指數上周又呈急幅下跌,跌幅達 40%,比今年最低谷812.75點僅高出14點。(《航運交易周刊》)

在此,如依然使用Although這一簡短的連接詞,顯然拖不動隨后這么長的句子。在下面這句譯文中,讀者看不清Although的讓步功 能可延續到何處為止:

Although Chinese and foreign shipping companies recently held a meeting in Shanghai intending to stabilize the freight rates on the shipping line to Japan, and, moreover, the seven Chinese carriers operating on the container shipping line from Dalian to Japan have set the minimum rate of US $ 380 per 20 container box to be implemented from August 10th onthe freight index for the line to Japan dropped sharply last week, registering a slump of 40 percent, only 14 points higher than this years record low of 812.75 points.(《航運交易周刊》)

這時如果僅僅拉長連接詞語的長度(例如,可拉長為In spite of the fact that...),全句結構依然不甚清楚。但如改用關聯詞語,則可增強長句內部或兩句句子之間的粘合性,增強前后的銜接性。以下譯文使用It is true thatNevertheless這樣的大功率關聯連接詞語,譯文便顯得清楚無誤了。

It is true that Chinese and foreign shipping companies recently held a meeting in Shanghai intending to stabilize the freight rates on the shipping line to Japan, and, moreoverthe seven Chinese carriers operating on the container shipping line from Dalian to Japan have set the minimum rate of US $ 380 per 20 container box to be implemented from August 10th on. Nevertheless, the freight index for the line to Japan dropped sharply last weekregistering a slump of 40 percentonly 14 points higher than this years record low of 812.75 points.

 

2.只要堅持公有制為主體,不會影響我國的社會主義性質。

Only if/ So long as we keep public ownership in the dominant positionthe socialist nature of our country will not be affected.

現將以上漢語句子擴展為以下長句:

只要堅持公有制為主體、國家控制國民經濟命脈,國有經濟的控制力和競爭力得到增強,在這個前提下,國有經濟比重減少一些,不會影響我國的社會主義性質。(《十五大》)

這時如繼續使用Only ifSo long as,其拖動力不足,讀者不易看清有關該條件的文字到何處終止。

Only if we keep public ownership in the dominant position, the State controls the life-blood of the national economy and the State- owned sector has stronger control capability and is more competitive, even if the State-owned sector accounts for a smaller proportion of the economythis will not affect the socialist nature of our country.

現改用長度更長,并且具有延續性的銜接詞語On the premise that… that… and that... ,使前后部分銜接起來,譯文就變得更為清晰:

On the premise that we keep public ownership in the dominant positionthat the State controls the life-blood of the national economy and that the State-owned sector has stronger control capability and is more competitive, even if the State-owned sector accounts for a smaller proportion of the economy, this will not affect the socialist nature of our country.(《中國日報》)

 

3.既要沖破舊的思想禁錮,又要按客觀規律辦事。(《現代漢英翻譯技巧》第171頁)

We should both break away from old concepts and act in accordance with objective laws.

但以上漢語句子可被拉長如下:

既要沖破舊的思想禁錮,尊重群眾的首創精神,大膽試驗創新,在實踐中積極探索前進,又羞按客觀規律辦事,審時度勢,講求實效。(《人大》)

如仍然使用短的連接詞both... and... ,似乎拖不動這么長的句子,句內關系不甚清楚,both后出現三個and,不容易一下看出與哪個 and相關聯:

We should both break away from old conceptsrespect the peoples pioneering spiritmake bold experiments and actively explore the way forward, and act in accordance with objective lawscorrectly appraise situations and strive for practical results.

這時可改用更長、更顯著的關聯詞On the one hand… on the other… ,或At the same time。為了表述清楚,即使斷句也是可取的。請看以下兩種譯文:

譯文 1 On the one handwe should break away from old conceptsrespect the peoples pioneering spiritmake bold experiments and actively explore the way forward on the other handwe should act in accordance with objective laws, correctly appraise situations and strive for practical results.

譯文 2 We should break away from old conceptsrespect the peoples pioneering spirit, make bold experiments and actively explore the way forward At the same timewe should act in accordance with objective lawscorrectly appraise situations and strive for practical results.(《中國日報》)

 

4.進一步在全黨全社會形成尊重知識、尊重人才,促進優秀人才脫穎而出的良好風氣。(80周年)

譯文 1 Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talent and outstanding people can easily come to the fore.

譯文 2: Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talentand where outstanding people can easily  come to the fore.

評析:譯文1用一個where來拖動后面的there is respect for knowledge and talent and outstanding people can easily come to the fore,顯得有點力不從心。譯文2通過兩個where連用,就增強了拖動力。

 

如果沒有適當的大型關聯詞,不妨刪除短小的關聯詞,將長句切斷。

 

5.事實表明,不觸動封建根基的自強運動和改良主義,舊式的農民戰爭,資產階級革命派領導的民主革命,以及照搬西方資本主義的其他種種方案,都不能完成救亡圖存的民族使命和反帝反封建的歷史任務。(80周年)

譯文 1 Facts show that neither the self-improvement movem?ents and reformism, the old peasant wars and the democratic revolution led by the revolutionaries of the bourgeoisie that did not touch the foundation of feudalism nor other solutions that ape western capitalism can accomplish the national mission of saving the nation from subjugation and ensuring its survival and the historical tasks against imperialism and feudalism.(《北京周報》)

譯文 2 Facts show that the self-improvement movements and reformism, the old peasant wars and the democratic revolution led by the revolutionaries of the bourgeoisie that did not touch the foundation of feudalism or other solutions that copied western capitalism could not accomplish the mission of saving the nation from subjugation and ensuring its survival and the historical tasks against imperialism and feudalism.(《單行本》)

評析:《北京周報》譯文中連接詞neithernor之間隔了 28個單詞,讀者讀到neither就會帶著一種期待心理往下找其對應詞nor,二 者之間距離太遠,用這兩個小詞來銜接,十分勉強,只會加重讀者的閱讀負擔。

《單行本》譯文用連接詞or將前后兩部分松散的連接起來,相當于斷句,對讀者的心理壓力較小。連成一有機整體,較好地解決了《北京周報》譯文的問題。

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