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經貿翻譯技巧之術語及專有名詞翻譯
作者:管理員    發布于:2012-06-03 15:47:02    文字:【】【】【

 

術語的翻譯

術語是科學文化的產物,科學文化越發達,術語越豐富。術語具有約定俗成、無替代性的特點,因此必須做到準確無誤,切不可望文生義或僅照字面翻譯。在經貿翻譯實踐中,首先要對所涉及術語的概念有所了解,還必須知道中英文對該術語是如何表述的,否則就會出現外行話,貽笑大方。例如,將negotiating documents (議付單據)翻譯為“談判文件”就令人啼笑皆非。在 When the seller gets the accepted draft, he can either hold it to maturity or discount it with the negotiating bank.一句中,就涉及到“已承兌匯票”、“貼現”等術語,沒有相關的外貿知識,又不知道中文表述,便談不上翻譯。下面再給一些常見術語的中英文說法。trade barrier貿易壁壘, mergers and acquisitionM&A)并購, franchising 特許經營權,trade balance 貿易差額,portfolio investment 證券投資, capital equipment 資本設備,foreign exchange reserves 外匯儲備,Generalized System of Preferences(GSP)普惠制。

 

 

專有名詞的翻譯

經貿翻譯經常涉及機構、廠家、商標、產品、文件、協議等名稱的翻譯。多數情況下,這些名稱的譯法已經確立,因而不能另尋新譯,否則讀者便不知所云。側如,WorldCom要翻譯為“世通公司”,GATT譯為《關貿總協定》,IMF譯為“國際貨幣基金組織”。有些漢語專有名詞的英譯也已確立,因而也不能創造新的譯法,例如“國有企業” 一定要翻譯為state-owned enterprises SOEs。另外,如果將本來由英語翻譯而來的“世通公司”譯成英語,則必須還其本來面目 WorldCom。按照這樣的思路,如果我們將“寶潔公司”譯成英語,也必須還其本來面目,將其譯 Procter and Gamble,這即是我們通常所說的“回譯”。實際上,英譯漢時也有個“回譯”問題。

 

除以上所談幾點之外,經貿翻譯中常常會遇到表達“數字、增長、下跌”等情況,這就需要譯者熟知英漢兩種語言的表達習慣,特別是英語的表達習慣,下面談一些這方面的情況。

 

1.英語中表示上升、增長、增長百分之多少等意思時,可用increase, rise, grow以及up等詞表示。 例如:

1)      Food prices increased in 2000.

2)      Oil prices increased from the second quarter of 2000 through to November but then eased, partly because of the global slowdown.

3)      The country’s deficit in visible trade increased 40% between 1998 and 2000.

4)      Orders in January increased by 19.9%.

5)      The city’s job losses increased much more rapidly between 2000 and 2001 than they did between 1998 and 1999.

6)      World trade volumes rose sharply in 2000particularly early in the year.

7)      Zhejiang province’s exports of irons rose 73% in the first 10 months of the year.

8)      Exports rose by 7% over the first nine months of the year.

9)      The global economy in 2000 grew at its fastest pace in over a decade and a half.

10)   Exports grew 3.2% in January and 1.5% in February.

11)   China’s GDP grew by 8% in 2000 and by 8.1% for the first quarter of 2001.

12)   Total sales in December 2001 were up by 10.8%, with a like for like increase of 5.3%.

13)   Imports totaled 4 trillion in March, up 11.5% from a year earlier.

 

2.      jump, leap, soarshoot upskyrocket等詞表示迅速、大幅度增加或上升,其中soar, shoot up skyrocketjumpleap相比程度上更強。例如:

1)      The country’s urban retail sales leapt nearly 12%.

2)      Revenues grew by $10 billion from 1998 to 1999and then jumped by another $60 billion to $100 billion in 2000.

3)      While exports grew 9.1% in March, imports soared 19.5%.

4)      Actual foreign direct investment rose by 24.2% to $4.58 billion in the first two months of this year while contracted FDT shot up by 47.1% in the same period.

5)      In recent years, the number of Internet hosts has skyrocketed from 5,000 in 1986 to more than 30 million now.

 

3.      stand atremain at表示保持在某種特定的水平或程度上;而hover around則表示保持在某種水平或程度上下。例如:

1)      China’s public debt to GDP ratio stood at 14.6 per cent — a comparatively low figure by international standards.

2)      The unemployment rate remained at 4.8% in January.

3)      GDP growth in the first half of this year was 7.9 per cent among the highest in the world­ and is forecast to remain at 7.5 per cent for the whole year.

4)      The province’s export growth rates hovered around 9% throughout 2000.

 

4.      英語中表示減少、下降或下降百分之多少時,可以用decreasefall,   reduce, down, drop, slide, slip, shrink以及dip等詞。例如:

1)      In April, the wholesale price index decreased 0.7% from a year earlier.

2)      The consumer prices in March fell 0.4%.

3)      The monthly trade surplus fell 14.8% from a year earlier.

4)      At the global level, profits are estimated to have fallen by 12 per cent over the year.

5)      The export growth is forecast to fall to 10% or less in dollar terms this year from 27.8% last year.

6)      Overall retail sales in Japan fell by 3.5% in August.

7)      Actual investment during January-October was reduced to 3%.

8)      Output in the January-March quarter was down 3.7% from the previous three months for the first drop in seven quarters.

9)      The household spending in March dropped 4.3% from a year earlier, to $3,000.

10)   Third-quarter US GDP data showed that profits had dropped to 4.1 per cent of GDP,

11)   Nationwide consumer prices fell for the 23rd month in a rowdropping by 0.9% in August compared with the year before.

12)   Growth in property sales slid 13% in October from 37% in the first three quarters of 2001.

13)   The retail-price index slipped 2.9% in 1999 from the previous year.

14)   The trade surplus shrank 27.4% to $816.1 billion.

15)   Japan’s economy is expected to shrink by 0.5% this year.

16)   The International Monetary Fund predicts that the country’s GDP growth will dip back below 8% in 2001.

 

本人由南寧言成翻譯公司www.pgyzuc.live整理發布。

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