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Use of Computers in Civil Engineering
作者:管理員    發布于:2012-05-25 15:54:55    文字:【】【】【

Use of Computers in Civil Engineering

計算機在土木工程中的應用

Because interactive computing is a relatively new development, traditional use of computers has been on the basis of batch processing. As a result of the limitations of this mode of operation, the use of computers has been mainly restricted to large, complex problems which could not be reasonably treated by conventional manual methods. An obvious example is the finite element method which has been employed successfully in a wide range of civil engineering design applications. Even here, however, the trial-and-error nature of design has meant that computers have generally been employed only in the later stages of the calculations, often serving as a little more than a formal check on less rigorous calculations and a means of producing presentation calculations. This is not to belittle such use, but simply to demonstrate that it has been in terms of very large or complicated projects that computers have traditionally enjoyed greatest application; the more routine work of the designer has been little affected.

人機相互配合的計算方法是新近才發展起來的,傳統的計算機哪個一直是建立在批處理基礎之上的。由于這種操作方式的局限性,計算機的應用主要限于那些不能用傳統的手工方式進行合理操作處理的大而復雜的問題。一個明顯的例子就是有限元法被成功地應用到范圍很廣的土木工程設計方面。但是即使在這方面,由于設計需要反復試驗這種性質,這就意味著計算機一班之上用在計算的較后階段,而且往往只不過是作為不那么有效的計算的一種正是核算,只是產生顯示計算的一種手段。這樣說來并不是貶低計算機的用途,而只是表示,在傳統意義上,計算機只是在大型或復雜的工程項目上得到了最廣泛的應用,而對于設計師的比較常規的工作卻影響甚微。

One exception to this is the use of automatic design programs, perhaps the most common being the plastic design of steel portal frames. In these the design is ‘optimised’generally using a simple criterion of minimum weight, and, having defined the problem, the computer is able to converge on the best solution. Nevertheless, computers have been implemented on the scale which might have been expected when one considers the amount of time spent on design calculations. This has of course been largely as a result of the unsuitability of batch processing, and the problems associated with slow turnaround. However, by using a computer interactively, we can now carry out a sequence of calculations, the computer doing the mundane arithmetic and the designer providing the control and making the decisions. As a sequence, a very much wider range of applications becomes suitable for computer-aided design and there seems little doubt that the engineer will be able to take increasing advantage of this valuable design tool in the future. As we have seen, the relatively limited use of computers described above can be attributed to the nature of traditional computing facilities — big, expensive, remote, operating in a batch processing mode, and resulting in a slow turnaround. Recent developments now provide almost instant access and immediate turnaround together with a fully interactive capability, and this makes it realistic to computerize even relatively simple design tasks.

應用自動設計程度是這種情況的一個例外。其中最常見的也許是鋼盾門架的塑性設計。在這些程度中,設計被優化了,通常是使用最小重量的簡單標準,而且一旦確定了問題之后,計算機就能集中到最佳解決方案上來。但是,當考慮到在設計計算上所花費的時間,人們就會認為計算機沒有按人們所期望的程度來完成工作任務。這當然主要是由于批處理的不適應性以及計算時間太慢有關的問題造成的。但是現在通過人機配合使用計算機,我們能夠進行一系列的計算,計算機進行一般的算術計算,而設計師則進行控制和作出決定。其結果是,計算機輔助設計得到比以前更為廣泛的應用,而且看來毫無疑問,工程師將來能夠從這種有價值的設計工具中獲得越來越多的利益。我們知道,上述計算機的應用受到相對限制是由于傳統計算機設施的性質造成的。這些設施體積大、費用高、距離遠,按批處理模式操作因而運算時間長。新近的發展口譯使我們幾乎立即就能使用計算機,并可當即進行運算,而且具有充分相互配合的能力,這樣就可以做到利用計算機來完成比較簡單的設計工作。

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